[8849], 69. Wind dispersion ofseed is inefficient because of seed size and cone disintegration [59].Germination occurs in the spring. Noble fir (Abies procera) is an  important associate in southern Washington and northern Oregon. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. There is confusion regarding its relative shade tolerance  compared with western hemlock. Early height growth from seeds is generally considered very slow; 9 or  more years are usually required to reach breast height. Pacific silver fir commonly occurs in late seral or climax mixed-coniferstands [52]. Pacific silver fir is a late seral or climax species in most habitats[41]. It can seed onto outwash after  glacial retreat (35), seed into burned areas, develop from advance  regeneration after removal of the overstory, and grow slowly from a  suppressed tree into an overstory tree in more uneven-aged stands where  disturbances are minor. Anonymous. Spread of the  aphid has been slow since the major outbreak of 1950-57, but infested  areas remain a problem. 1983. The most reliable way to diagnose Annosus root disease is by thepresence of conks, or fruiting bodies, found in the duff layer at theroot collar on the outer bark. At lower elevations in the Pacific silver firzone, Pacific silver fir usually sun scalds when used as leave tree inshelterwood cuttings [26]. shastensis), andwestern larch (Larix occidentalis) [9.14,27,51,60]. The cones are susceptible to molding andheat build-up if sacked when wet [18]. Similar results were obtained from analyses of bark blister and leaf and  twig oils. The shoots are orange-red with dense velvety pubescence. 17. Abies amabilis 'Spreading Star' is an old selection of Pacific silver fir from The Netherlands which has very attractive lush, green, fluffy, long needles with silvery undersides and a tendency to grow very wide without developing any sort of leader. Nitrification has not been found to occur. Gen. Tech. Germination can occur on a variety of media: on  litter humps and in moist depressions in the subalpine zone; on edges of  melting snowpack in subalpine meadows; and in litter, rotten wood, moss,  organic soils, mineral soils, and fresh volcanic tephra (2,11,25).

Handb. The foliage has an attractive scent and is sometimes used for Christmas decoration, including Christmas trees. Volume in old-growth stands is extremely variable, depending on the mix  of species and degree of stand deterioration. However, in the northern part of its range, stands occur well below 1,000 feet. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6–7 months after pollination. Air drying large stumps often reduces chances of further infection. Seedlings can  develop adventitious roots where volcanic tephra covers the original soil  surface (1). Pacific silver fir is very closely related to Maries' fir A. mariesii from Japan, which is distinguished by its slightly shorter leaves—1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in)—and smaller cones, which are 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long. Sustained productivity of forest soils: Proceedings, 7th North American soils conference; [Date of conference unknown], 56.

Pacific silver fir usually occurs in uniform stands or associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).

Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native. In one study, only 9 percent  of the sound seeds were found more than 114 m (375 ft) from the stand  edge, compared with 41 percent at the stand edge and 34 percent more than  38 m (125 ft) (4). Seedlings germinating on snow because of early snowfall or late seed fall  are generally short lived. The greatest known growth rates for Pacific  silver fir occur at low elevations on fine-textured residual soils from  sedimentary and basaltic rocks (16). [9235], 62. Common herbaceous associates are common beargrass (Xerophyllum  tenax), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), twinflower (Linnaea  borealis), queenscup (Clintonia uniflora), dwarf blackberry  (Rubus lasiococcus), strawberryleaf blackberry (R. pedatus),  rosy twistedstalk (Streptopus roseus), coolwort foamflower  (Tiarella unifoliata), and deerfern (Blechnum spicant). Climate throughout the range of Pacific silver fir is distinctly  maritime. In subalpine tree  clumps at higher elevations, Pacific silver firs reach heights of 18 to 24  m (60 to 80 ft). Pacific silver fir alsoreportedly grows in extensive pure stands in parts of the southernWashington Cascade Range [14]. In: Otrosina, William J.; Scharpf, Robert F., technical coordinators. If you would like to see this tree listed, or know of a nursery that sells it, please contact us at ufei@calpoly.edu. Washington, DC.

Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 203-207. Timberline: Mountain and arctic forest frontiers. In  one instance, E. tinctorium was nearly absent in young stands 30  years after release, even though adjacent unlogged stands were heavily  infected. Young trees haveresin-filled blisters protruding from the smooth, thin bark. An older, more open stand in the  same area had 840 m³/ha (12,000 ft³/acre). Houston, C. Stuart; Scott, Frank. In  British Columbia, heaviest damage is on similar sites below 610 m (2,000  ft). * No warranties or guarantees as to the accuracy of the data and information derived from this web site are expressed or implied. Agric. Schmidt, R. G. 1957. By the third season, the exposed trees are growingfaster than those trees at the stand edge. 1. Following disturbance, Douglas-fir and noble fir become established.Pacific silver fir is the last to invade, sometimes 400 to 500 yearsafter the disturbance.
Contribution No. Summers are cool, with mean daily temperatures of 13° to 16°  C (55° to 61° F), and winter temperatures are seldom lower than  -9° C (16° F) (35). Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Cool, moist habitats are best for germination, but full sunlight  produces maximum subsequent growth. Pacific silver fir is also one of the Northwest conifers most susceptible  to laminated root rot (Phellinus weiri) (27) and shoestring rot  (Armillaria mellea). Needle casts (Lophodermium uncinatum, Phaeocryptopus nudus, Virgella  robusta) and rusts (Uredinopsis spp.) [9847], 67. 5 p. [11984], 20. Other fungal diseases include Indian paint fungus (Echinodontium tinctorium) and laminated root rot (Phellinus weirii). ), Cascades azalea (Rhododendronalbiflorum), devils club (Oplopanax horridum), copper bush (Cladothanuspyrolaeflorus), rustyleaf menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), salal(Gaultheria shallon), vine maple (Acer circatum), and Oregon-grape(Berberis nervosa) [9,12,15,28,52]. 1982. Hood and Willame. * Encyclopedia of Earth. Growth and foliar nutrient concentrations of Pacific silver fir. 1987. Associated tree species and successional role: Pacific silver fir grows in all seral stages and in combination with one or more tree species; pure old-growth stands are not rare but not very common. An Abies amabilis in Klamath National Forest is registered as a California Big Tree. "Abies amabilis Tree Record." Pacific silver fir is common in mixedstands and rare in even-aged stands [59]. Infected trees in sawtimber-sized standsshould be removed, followed with stump removal or replacement withdisease-tolerant species. The meanfire interval for Pacific silver fir as a primary dominant is 192 years[1]. Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington.
On the east side  of the Cascade Range, it is confined to high elevations, down to 1160 m  (3,800 ft) in Oregon and 1000 m (3,300 ft) in Washington (30,35). Mature cones are 3.5 to 6 inches long and purple. Ecological Monographs. The climate throughout the range of Pacific silver fir is maritime tosubmaritime [14,41]. Buds hidden by leaves or exposed, brown, globose, small, resinous (at least apically), apex rounded; basal scales short, broad, triangular, densely pubescent, usually not resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Photo Locations: Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Tilden Regional Park - Berkeley, CA and Hoyt Arboretum - Portland, OR.

Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. In British  Columbia, Pacific silver firs were free of decay to age 75; then incidence  increased with age to 11 percent at 275 years, 40 percent at 375 years,  and 100 percent in trees more than 400 years (6). Peak growth of seedling roots occurs when shoots are least active. Trees greater than 28 inches (71 cm) in d.b.h. Feller, M. C. 1983. The crown is rigid and symmetrical withlateral branches perpendicular to the stem [14]. Publ. The Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridum type  occupies wet, alluvial habitats (2,9). This is probably the least commonly found of our native firs. Both are dormant by November and remaindormant until April of the second year, at which time development of thepollen-cone and seed-cone buds is resumed [63]. 1992. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. In Oregon, podzolization is less strongly expressed and soils  are more shallow and rocky. Susceptible to Aphids and Beetle Borers, Armillaria, Root Rot, Rust and White Pine Blister Rust. Oxford University Press, New York. Species descriptions and data provided by: © 2012-2020. Juvenile growth ranges from 4 to16 inches (10-40 cm) per year [14]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.