We conclude that in men (at least) empathic responses are shaped by valuation of other people's social behaviour, such that they empathize with fair opponents while favouring the physical punishment of unfair opponents, a finding that echoes recent evidence for altruistic punishment. counter with aggression (Ronay & Galinsky, tations to dominate may stand in the way of, effective leadership. In so doing, I assess the extent to which it succeeds, as intended, in providing a scientifically rigorous framework for our understanding of leadership in the 21st century. These results can be applied to traditional issues of the sociology of social stratification and social inequality — distribution of people in the system of material inequality, social categorization, life chances, antagonistic conflicts, cultural and historical variations in social stratification, and the process of emancipation. ously to followers. It is argued that this encompasses the predominant theoretical frameworks, including the principal-agent perspective, and goes further to explain how family capital can create competitive advantage through the cultures family business leaders are able to build. Third, if overconfidence is indeed related to, a general need to self-enhance, then meeting, that self-enhancement goal should serve to, attenuate overconfidence. More, research is needed to examine the impact of, these biases on leader decision making and how, Testing the possible relationship between, overconfidence, leadership selection, and, decision-making biases might be achieved with, a three-prong strategy. Power was manipulated by comparing games in which allocators either had absolute power (dictator game), intermediate (delta game), or shared power (ultimatum game) over joint outcomes. Moreover, a risk-averse CEO's overconfidence enhances firm value up to a point, but the effect is nonmonotonic and differs from that of lower risk aversion. Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals. In so doing, I assess the extent to which it succeeds, as intended, in providing a scientifically rigorous framework for our understanding of leadership in the 21st century. ship we can work with a diversity of methods. In some countries such as the USA, candidates, omit their gender and age from job application, forms, and we should study whether that pro-, duces the desired effects. selection of leadership in modern organizations. You can change your cookie settings through your browser. vestige of our ancestral past (Meindl, Ehrlich, These are just some examples that suggest, that discrepancies between modern and ances-, tral conditions can impede leadership selection, and effectiveness. King, A. J., Johnson, D. D. P., & van Vugt, M. (2009). This process is called competi-, tive altruism and it is a common ritual in tra-, ditional societies where Big Men compete for, status for example though organizing large. referred to as mismatch (van Vugt, Johnson, Kaiser, & O’Gorman, 2008) and it has spe-. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. cial implications for studying leadership. The emergence of male leadership in, Ronay, R., & Carney, D. R. (2013). Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., & de Vries, R. E. (2005). In M. Zanna, Van Der Vliert, E. (2006). charismatic (A. W. Johnson & Earle, 2000). Group decision-. Thus, the so-. Gillet, J., Cartwright, E., & van Vugt, M. (2011).