), American religious leader, first president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. In September and October of 1830 four missionaries set out, reaching their destination in midwinter.
Ill himself, Smith made efforts to obtain land and eventually arranged for plots at Commerce, Illinois, and across the river in Iowa. 2) Mormon Polygamy.
Joseph Smith (1805-1844), American religious leader, was the founder of a unique American sect, the Mormons, or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
The people of Jackson County were unhappy at the prospect of Mormons inundating their society and in the fall of 1833 drove them out of the county. The angel told him not to take the plates but to return the next year. Byproducts of this journey turned out to be even more significant than the mission to the Indians.
The Saints were not to use authority unjustly themselves, but to lead only “by long-suffering, by gentleness and meekness, and by love unfeigned.” The Missouri officials allowed Smith to escape his captors in April 1839, and he joined his followers clustered along the banks of the Mississippi near Quincy, Illinois. Living Saints could also be baptized for persons who had died without hearing the gospel of Christ. A bizarre sect could be tolerated in small numbers, but not when it threatened to control all local political offices. En route the missionaries stopped in Kirtland, Ohio, and made more converts in a few weeks than Smith had assembled in a year. On 12 June Smith was charged with inciting a riot for destruction of the press. Late in 1839 Smith went to Washington to seek redress from the federal government for the loss of property in Missouri. Denied such redress by President Martin Van Buren, Smith asked the Illinois legislature to charter a new city, to be called Nauvoo, where the Mormons would have control of all the agencies of government. They joined forces with anti-Mormons in surrounding towns who were jealous of the Mormon’s growing political influence. Smith also made plans for the Kirtland economy.
She was deeply religious but went unbaptized until adulthood, rarely attending meetings.
According to Smith, an angel who called himself Moroni appeared at his bedside and told him about a record of prophecy from ancient America. Latter-day Saints now speak of this event as the First Vision, but at the time it made little impression on the people around Smith, who easily dismissed the visions of a young boy.
Mormons consider these writings, published as the Doctrine and Covenants and the Book of Mormon, as scripture on a par with the Bible and think of Smith as a prophet in the biblical tradition. While Smith continued to live in Ohio, his ultimate aim was to direct new converts to Missouri where the New Jerusalem was to rise. He had little use for a young man who dug for treasure and claimed to have revelations. See also Fawn M. Brodie, No Man Knows My History (1945), for a critical view by a disaffected Mormon, and Richard L. Bushman, Joseph Smith and the Beginnings of Mormonism (1984), for a sympathetic account.
Born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. grew up on a series of tenant farms in Vermont, New Hampshire, and New York.
Along with his neighbors he searched for buried treasure, a common practice among poor New Englanders at that time.
Early years. Going there the next day, Smith reportedly found the plates in a stone box and saw Moroni again. This is the AUTHORIZED and OFFICIAL website for the PUBLISHING of the true biography of Joseph Smith, Jr.
In the 1840s Smith published a work which elaborated upon the "Hamitic curse" in such a way as to exclude blacks from the Mormon priesthood. Doctrines such as plural marriage went so far beyond conventional Christian teaching, not to mention the bounds of Victorian propriety, that an influential small group came to believe that Smith had betrayed his divine calling. The undertaking was remarkable in many respects and enough to strain the credulity even of Smith’s closest friends. 1) LDS Priesthood Unveiled His mother’s family was orthodox and partly mystical; his father’s family tended toward rationalism and skepticism. 1.
For four years Smith went back to the hill on the same day and, according to his account, finally on 22 September 1827 took home the gold plates. In letters from prison he told his people that their sufferings gave them experience and to remember that Christ had suffered more than any human. In 1833 Smith published the "Word of Wisdom," which encouraged members of the church to abstain from tobacco, alcohol, and hot drinks and to eat meat only in winter.
In March 1830 the translation was published as the Book of Mormon.
They were poor, suffering from fever, and uncertain about the future. Emma’s father was not happy with the match. The mob fled, fearing reprisal from the Mormons, who did not retaliate. In the interim his ideas about the gold plates underwent a change. The bodies were returned the next day to Nauvoo, where 10,000 Latter-day Saints gathered to mourn the loss of their prophet. At the same time he undertook a history of the Mormon Church.
But the plans for Zion quickly ran into trouble. Joseph, Sr., was suspicious of the clergy and of professing Christians. Until recently the literature on Mormonism has been polemical, and the biographies of Smith have reflected either the uncritical views of his followers or the diatribes of disaffected converts. The best complete biography is Donna Hill, Joseph Smith, the First Mormon (1977). founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, known as the Mormon Church, Related articles in Companion to United States History on Oxford Reference, https://doi.org/10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.0801413, Smith, Emma Hale (1804-1879), humanitarian, Cowdery, Oliver (1806-1850), Mormon leader, Boggs, Lilburn W. (1796-1860), governor of Missouri and California pioneer, Van Buren, Martin (1782-1862), eighth president of the United States, Young, Brigham (1801-1877), second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), first governor of Utah Territory, and colonizer. From Nauvoo Smith launched a renewed missionary effort, and converts soon came flooding in from all over the United States and parts of Europe, especially Great Britain. Through the Mormon Church Smith’s influence continues to be felt. Until then he had been a young man claiming a divine gift and a mission to translate a book. This book, Without Disclosing My True Identity--The Authorized and … The townspeople considered the book a fraud and refused to buy it. These ventures often blended quests for religious enlightenment with the exercise of magical power. During the translation Smith permitted no one to see the plates, but in June 1829, according to Harris, Cowdery, and one of the Whitmers, the angel Moroni appeared and showed them the plates, and Smith showed them to eight of his family and close friends. The printer undertook to publish it only because Martin Harris provided financial backing. When Lucy joined the Presbyterian Church around 1819, Joseph, Sr., refused to attend. Joseph Smith1805-1844. On 6 April 1830, at the Whitmers’ house in Fayette, he organized the Church of Christ, with himself and Oliver Cowdery as first and second elders. By the time he obtained the plates in 1827, he had come to focus on their contents and to put aside considerations of their value as gold. That colony, too, attracted hostility, and Smith had to flee under sentence of death, leading a migration to Nauvoo, Ill. Governor Lilburn Boggs issued an order for the Mormons to leave the state or face extermination. Although this system had to be abandoned because of the expulsion from Jackson County, Smith had become accustomed to reordering many aspects of ordinary life along religious lines. Soon after his death, Brigham Young, as president of the Twelve Apostles and a stalwart friend and defender of Smith, assumed leadership of the church and in 1846 led the Saints west in search of a new place to build Zion. All Rights Reserved. Four of his eleven children (two adopted) were living, and a fifth was to be born to Emma Smith four months later. He stood over six feet with broad chest and shoulders, light brown hair, and blue eyes.
He ultimately submitted to arrest and was taken to Carthage, the nearby county seat, under the governor’s protection. Smith had plans for another temple in Caldwell County at the Mormon settlement of Far West, Missouri, but these ambitions were never realized. In the summer and fall of 1838, pitched battles broke out between the Missourians and the Mormons, claiming lives on both sides. Increasing criticism over his inept management of Kirtland's financial affairs caused Smith to rejoin his Missouri followers. Smith was instructed to obtain the record and translate it in preparation for the restoration of Israel and the return of Christ. Smith claimed to lead the church, as he had translated the Book of Mormon, by direct revelation.