abuin becomes abin (above). ī, y and Romance ī, see § 43; (2) [ɔɪ, oɪ] from O.Fr. The on-glide to ch = [x] is voiced by the preceding vowel and the whole gives a diphthongal effect, hence the word might be written phonetically [laux]. the form of English from which all English dialects, provincial or literary, are derived — the word bān (bone) had the sound of ā as in our Mod.Eng. having ā + n in O.E., have [i] as in Abdsh., so we write them een, eence, been, steen. The results from a 1996 trial before the Census, by the General Register Office for Scotland,[61] suggested that there were around 1.5 million speakers of Scots, with 30% of Scots responding "Yes" to the question "Can you speak the Scots language? in the schools, and the younger generation are fast losing hold of the Scots vernacular. Elfdalian, O.E.

dialects. [31]:xliii Later influences on the development of Scots came from the Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman French,[31]:lxiii–lxv and later Parisian French, due to the Auld Alliance. On the basis of phonetic distinctions the Mainland of Scotland is divided into three great areas, Mid, Southern and Northern. [40] By the 1940s, the Scottish Education Department's language policy was that Scots had no value: "it is not the language of 'educated' people anywhere, and could not be described as a suitable medium of education or culture". See § 28.2. ic., is found in some words which had a diphthong in the older stage — e.g. http://www.linguanaut.com/english_scots.htm Carlisle) or in areas that had recruited large numbers of Scottish workers in the past (e.g. In Middle Sc. [84] reidz, breid; ˈleidm, ˈfeidɪr, steid, steil; leig, eidʒ, eig, seig, ein, bein, sein, leinþ, streinþ. § 141.3. — Montgomery MSS. are diphthongised as in Mod.Eng. It crosses the Spey two miles south of Inveravon, traverses the Knock of Brae Moray, and hence north-west to Nairn, crossing the Findhorn at right angles and going on to Ardclach, and hence to the Moray Firth, three miles west of Nairn. § 28.21. † In Ags. I.

Club Misc.

ō at an early period began to shift forward in the mouth until it became a front vowel like the Fr. The u vowel [ʌ] takes the place of o or a in some words, as body, porridge, bonnet, Robert, mauna (mustn’t), mony, stomack, foreign.[45].

cut, but — viz. Het wordt gezien als nauw verwant aan het Engels, maar te onderscheiden wegens aanzienlijke verschillen in woordenschat en uitspraak. The southern boundary of this dialect district extends beyond the Dee valley and its tributaries as far as Stonehaven, including all the Mearns lying between the coastline and the Stonehaven-Banchory road. § 96.5. § 110. ɲ voice front nasal. bawkie = a bogle, and oro = mad, and mentions (p. 228) that in N. Ronaldshay tang-tangle (seaweed), long, sang, ran, came are pronounced with the vowel [o̜]. § 111. ch [x] with back vowels. meed, teel, neem, sheem, for made, tale, name, shame. For the O.Sc. See § 134.

guid becomes gid, brute becomes brit, shune becomes shin, use (n.) becomes yis, but ruise (= praise) becomes raise [re:z], muir becomes mair [me:r], use (v.) becomes yaise [je:z], shoe becomes shae [ʃe:]. Words from many Sc. The examples given of the first set are bowe (a bow to shoot with), lowe (a flame), powe (poll), howe (hollow), grow,[64] so that bow (n.) [bɔu] is distinguished in this dialect from bowe (v.) [bʌu] (to bend), powe (head) [pɔu] from powe [pʌu] (to pull). The names of the letters and these notes come from Chris Robinson of Scottish Language Dictionaries.

[36] ˈlɛdĕ, ˈlo̜:dĕ, ˈwidĕ, ˈkerfĕ, ˈkanĕ, dɛnĕ. Words like enough, tough retain the older pronunciation — i.e. Examples: brow, cow, dove, ‡dow (O.E.

§ 15. This diphthong is [ei] and the following are examples: O.E. ch in ich and Sc. When the word began with a vowel or h the stress fell on the second element of the diphthong and a y [j] sound was produced instead of i [ɪ], as in yae, yin, ‡yick, ‡yicker, yill, yince, yits, hyim, hyirsch, hyil[57], for one (adj. Yaave, meaning respect, power of keeping in subjection, is of the same origin as Eng. See § 48.1(2). O.E. Yiddish, : “The Sheese o’ Shatton is nae mair like the sheese o’ Shillingham nor shaak’s like sheese.” In Older Sc. cards, carry, garden. by Gaelic, Norse, Latin, Dutch, Norman French, Standard ǣ (i-umlaut of ā), errand, lead (v.), sweat. For so-called liquid ng see § 110. § 147. Northumbria and southern Scotland, in the 5th century AD. (1) before sh [ʃ], sn, st, sp, ss — e.g. on bæc = on back becomes a back = [əˈbak]. the one to pay the forfeit, the pursuer in a game. pp. § 10. § 65.1. k takes the place of Eng. De Britse regering betwist de status van het Schots als 'taal', en ziet het Schots als een dialectgroep van het Engels. It occurs in many words in the following classes: § 147.1. hit (neut. lot.

lār became law- in oblique cases and gave rise to Mod.Sc. There are, however, many authors who lie between these two extremes. [56], In the 2011 Scottish census, a question on Scots language ability was featured[9] and is planned to be included again in the 2021 census. + e. § 34. Elderly people in Avrsh. It has been developed out of u in wir or wur, meaning our unemphatic: “Wir ain fowk” = our own people. Curiously enough, two, who, whose, where, away have generally a as in fate [e] in em.Sc. The latter are, in most cases, the results of the development of the same sounds in different directions owing to varying physical, geographical, social and political conditions. § 88.

blyaave, gnyaave, tyaave (taw, a hill, in place-names — e.g. and Sh. [57], The Scottish government set its first Scots Language Policy in 2015, in which it pledged to support its preservation and encourage respect, recognition and use of Scots. The main portion of it is Lowland Scottish, embracing most of the words in daily use as well as inflectional forms; but the older stratum in the language, the Norn, still makes its influence strongly felt. History has always had a significant influence on language development and evolution, and to examine a country’s language is to examine its history. [6][7][8], Scots is recognised as an indigenous language of Scotland,[9] a regional or minority language of Europe,[10] and as a vulnerable language by UNESCO.   Lowland Scots at Wikibooks, The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census in Scotland aged 3 and above who stated that they can speak Lowland Scots, The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census in Northern Ireland aged 3 and above who stated that they can speak Ulster Scots, With the exception of North Northern dialects. rock — roak. § 23. s from Gaelic, and which, as said, is now in process of obliteration, derived part of its former definiteness from the contrasting characters of the two tongues. dialects in retaining O.E. § 105.1. § 158.1. it tends to a broader sound in words of this class [e̢]. (O.E. Initial t and initial d followed by a [j] sound frequently become ch = [tʃ] and j [dʒ] — e.g.

A “Jugal” always fears,[dog] His example was followed by other Scottish writers, like Alexander, Earl of Stirling, and Drummond of Hawthornden, so that when the Union of the Parliaments took place, in 1707, English had become the recognised medium of expression for Scottish authors — at least in all subjects of serious import. The same tendency is seen in Middle Sc., where it is sometimes written with the letter i or e and sometimes with the letter y [ɪ̜] = h.fr.l.lrd. § 93.7. l is sometimes replaced by y [j] — e.g. § 93.4. See § 88. Fifty years ago it was unknown in n. and s.Sc., but it can now be heard in many of the larger towns in these districts, not by natural development but through association with people from Glasgow and its neighbourhood. In only two Scottish dialects — viz. Menu. It evolved from Middle Irish.

Alsatian, Some modern writers of Sc. that it shoud can tak its steid as a langage o Scotland, alang wi

reaches the Moray Firth a little to the west of Nairn. University Press 1977. Words which in O.E. and respects Scots (in all its forms) as a distinct language, and does not consider ), Lecturer in English, Armstrong Tollege, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Scots Language Centre Centre for the Scots Leid. O.E. Merges with vowels 15. and 8. in central dialects and vowel 2 in Northern dialects. in speech. § 121. The same writer may even spell the same word differently on the same page. open a becomes [ɛ, e] as haivel (sea-eel), gait, scaith. His mither Mary wis trystit til Joseph, but afore they war mairriet she wis fund tae be wi bairn bi the Halie Spírit. § 132. there is a distinct tendency to substitute u [ʌ] for i in words other than those beginning with w, as hill, milk, silk.

Värmlandic, § 112. f is replaced by th [þ] in [þræ] = from, cf. [84] This modern literary dialect, 'Scots of the book' or Standard Scots,[85][86] once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author". Scots in leeteratur, drama, the media, eddication an in ilka day § 148. See: t can become a glottal stop [ʔ] between vowels or word finally, In northern dialects kn can be pronounced [kn] or [tn] and gn as[gn], wh is pronounced [ʍ], or [xʍ] by older speakers. In this literature we find grammatical peculiarities and mannerisms of expression which are wanting in The Brus and in the modern dialects. [ʌ] as in Eng. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the use of Scots as a literary language was revived by several prominent Scotsmen[citation needed] such as Robert Burns. au [o̜] is not so common as in Lth. The said day, the magistrates and councill. In Scots the vowel tends to maximum length in stressed syllables ending in voiced fricatives [v, ð, z] and [r]. Scots organisations. Low German,

When the vowel comes before r, or a guttural, the development is the same as in Mry. In the insular area that, adj., and the are pronounced dat and de. In mn.Sc. In regard to the consonants he says “ch” [x], Sc.

)?” — how, now, full, pull, sow (n.), allow (Rom. See § 147.1. Read or recited with a pronunciation radically different from that of its author, a poem loses the sensuous effect intended, and therefore a very important artistic element. Zeelandic, Languages written with the Latin alphabet.