For example, the change in the conductivity of an aluminium alloy may be due to a change in composition or a change in its hardness. (a)They are placed in a time varying magnetic  field . (4) The resistance of bulk conductor is usually low, eddy currents often have large magnitudes and heat up the conductor. In the past eddy current flaw detectors were meter reading instruments, however, modern flaw detectors utilise LCD screen displays for their added versatility. (1) These currents are produced in metal bodies. Modern work out machines use eddy currents to create a smooth transition between resistance levels and make for low maintenance machinery. An example application is separation of aluminum cans from other metals in an eddy current separator. They are being used to supplement magnetic particle inspections underwater, to distinguish strong spurious indications from toe cracks. The baffle plates are ferrous and the permeability signal is enough to obliterate signals from thinning between the tube and baffle plate. (1)If a metal piece and a stone are dropped from the same height near earth’s surface, then eddy currents are produced in the falling metal piece due to earth’s magnetic field which opposes its motion. The strength of the eddy currents, and thus the retardation, depends on the conductivity of the coin's metal. When a steady current is passed through the coil of galvanometer, it is deflected. Using electromagnets with electronic switching comparable to electronic speed control it is possible to generate electromagnetic fields moving in an arbitrary direction.

By recording the X and Y signals from the impedance diagram on a two-channel strip chart recorder, the extent of thinning can be ascertained at test speeds of 200-300mm per second. (5) By ‘ Laminations ’ , slotting process, the resistance path for circulation of eddies increases, resulting in to weakening them and also reducing losses caused by them. This is complex and is only practicable in automated tube testing systems. Depending on the strength of the magnet, identity of the coin, and separation between the magnet and coin, one may induce the coin to be pushed slightly ahead of the magnet – even if the coin contains no magnetic elements, such as the US penny. Another application is on some roller coasters, where heavy copper plates extending from the car are moved between pairs of very strong permanent magnets. Superconductors also exhibit a separate inherently quantum mechanical phenomenon called the Meissner effect in which any magnetic field lines present in the material when it becomes superconducting are expelled, thus the magnetic field in a superconductor is always zero. The diffusion equation therefore is. The magnet then attains a constant final terminal velocity i.e. The separate signal phases are then mixed in a manner which removes unwanted permeability effects. The constant test speeds and differential coils allow for modulation of the test signals with the speed and then filtering to remove noise. Eddy currents (also called Foucault's currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor according to Faraday's law of induction. Eddy current brakes use the drag force created by eddy currents as a brake to slow or stop moving objects. Widespread use of such sensors in turbomachinery has led to development of industry standards that prescribe their use and application.

The high near surface resolution of eddy current testing makes it useful for accurately measuring coatings, both metallic and paint, on metal substrates. Great care has to be taken to ensure that the variation being detected is the relevant one. Typical applications for eddy current testing include: Crack detection. The signal interpretation is more difficult and it is often necessary to do supplementary tests with absolute coils. As described in the section above about eddy current brakes, a non-ferromagnetic conductor surface tends to rest within this moving field. (2) These currents are produced only in closed path within the entire volume of metal body or surface area of metal body. H = 0, so, Using Ohm's law, J = σE, which relates current density J to electric field E in terms of a material's conductivity σ, and assuming isotropic homogeneous conductivity, the equation can be written as, Using the differential form of Faraday's law, ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t, this gives, By definition, B = μ0(H + M), where M is the magnetization of the material and μ0 is the vacuum permeability. Slots and laminations intercept the conducting paths and decrease the magnitude of eddy currents.

Ferrous segregators and electromagnetic sorting bridges are useful tools in sorting steels which have been hardened. FAQ: What are the applications and capabilities of eddy currents.

Facilities for magnetic saturation and demagnetisation of ferrous tubes and wires, increase the capital costs considerably. They are rarely useful, mainly being seen as something to avoid: by laminating transformers and motors for example, or using non-magnetic cable trays for single AC conductors. F. Fiorillo, Measurement and Characterization of Magnetic Materials, Elsevier Academic Press, 2004. Extrusion defects along the centre of bars cannot be detected either because the eddy current field from an encircling coil is at zero intensity at the centre of a solid cylinder. That’s why a laminated metal core is always preferred to be used in an appliance like dynamo, transformer, choke will etc. The disadvantages lie in the high noise levels caused by permeability changes in the weld and lift-off noise from rough cap surfaces. Because eddy current fields penetrate below the surface of the test material, the method provides a better sample of material properties than many other material sorting methods and more importantly it is very rapid. Normally, the coil oscillates about its equilibrium position for some time before coming to r… These sensors are extremely sensitive to very small displacements making them well suited to observe the minute vibrations (on the order of several thousandths of an inch) in modern turbomachinery. In a perfect conductor with no resistance (a superconductor), surface eddy currents exactly cancel the field inside the conductor, so no magnetic field penetrates the conductor. They waste energy by joule heating of the metalwork in which they are induced. The same technique is used in electromagnetic brakes in railroad cars and to quickly stop the blades in power tools such as circular saws. Changing magnetic flux produced by a superconducting magnet placed on the moving train produces eddy currents on the stationary conducting sheet over which train levitates. Ferrous metals cling to the magnet, and aluminum (and other non-ferrous conductors) are forced away from the magnet; this can separate a waste stream into ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal. (i)    Induction furnace (heating effect of eddy current), (ii)   Dead-beat galvanometer (electromagnetic damping), (iv) Diathermy ( Strong 50 MHz A.C. passed through human body, also called deep heat treatment ), By Lenz’s law the eddy currents oppose the falling of the magnet which therefore experiences a retarding force .The retarding force increases with increasing velocity of the magnet and finally equals the weight of the magnet. Tube thinning is the main defect and by selecting what is known as the f90 frequency, signals resulting from thinning on the outside surface can be set 90° out of phase from signals arising from thinning on the inside surface. A conductive object will experience a repulsion force. Once the operator has calibrated the instrument using a tube or wire with known flaws, the test installation runs automatically, ejecting defective pieces from the production line or marking them with paint. A typical proximity sensor used for vibration monitoring has a scale factor of 200 mV/mil. Similarly, in magnetic materials of finite conductivity eddy currents cause the confinement of the majority of the magnetic fields to only a couple skin depths of the surface of the material. Eddy currents are the currents induced in the body of a conductor when the amount of magnetic   flux linked with it changes. That’s why these are sometimes undesirable. Eddy currents flow in closed loops within conductors, in planes perpendicular to the magnetic field. Unfortunately, when using differential coils, it is possible to pass tubes (which contain consistent defects over their entire length) through the eddy current system, without detection. Electrical resistance within the plates causes a dragging effect analogous to friction, which dissipates the kinetic energy of the car. Slots and laminations intercept the conducting paths and decrease the magnitude of eddy currents. An eddy current is a current set up in a conductor in response to a changing magnetic field. Special points: They flow in closed loops in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Eddy current tests are highly sensitive in the detection of surface cracks. The coin rolls past a stationary magnet, and eddy currents slow its speed.

Eddy current are useful in many ways though they have some disadvantages too. This technology was originally pioneered in the 1930s by researchers at General Electric using vacuum tube circuitry. National Structural Integrity Research Centre, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK.

Examples of such standards are American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 670 and ISO 7919. Eddy Currents : The mechanical handling equipment for the test pieces becomes so complex that the actual eddy current test instrumentation may appear an insignificant part. Automated eddy current test systems have been developed for inspecting tube, bar and wire at speeds up to 3 m/s. The eddy current testing method is one of the best techniques to find surface and near-surface flaws caused by high temperatures.

High frequencies of the order of 2MHz give high resolution, but the probes are small and covering large surface areas takes a long time. For any time interval : hmetal > Hnonmetal, For any given height   : tmetal > tnonmetal. Special Examples on eddy currents Using electromagnets, as opposed to permanent magnets, the strength of the magnetic field can be adjusted and so the magnitude of braking effect changed. In some coin-operated vending machines, eddy currents are used to detect counterfeit coins, or slugs. To alleviate this problem, instruments have been developed to operate with two frequencies simultaneously. Eddy currents are used in certain types of proximity sensors to observe the vibration and position of rotating shafts within their bearings. Here in this article we are discussing about the various applications of eddy currentwith its disadvantage and method of minimizing the eddy current. Therefore their measurement is impossible. Inspection can then be done in real time. Subscribe to our newsletter to receive the latest news and events from TWI: Typical applications for eddy current testing include: Eddy current crack detection equipment can be divided into high frequency instruments for finding surface breaking cracks in ferrous and non-ferrous materials and low frequency instruments for finding subsurface cracks in non-ferrous materials.